History and culture of Japanese ceramics:焼き物

Iga ware : 伊賀焼

March 18, 2008 7:38 PM   Iga ware : 伊賀焼

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伊賀焼の歴史:

 

伊賀焼の歴史は古く、調査等から16世紀後期の築窯が確認されました。
平安時代末期から鎌倉時代の初めごろに本格的なやきものの産地として発展し、室町時代の終わりから桃山時代にかけて侘び茶が広まると、個性的な伊賀焼は茶陶として注目されるようになりました。
伊賀國を治めていた筒井定次や藤堂高虎が茶人であったことから、伊賀焼は茶の湯のセンスや心遣いを巧みに取り入れていきました。
伊賀焼は、「水差、花生は伊賀に優る物なし」と高い評価を受けました。
しかし、江戸期に入り、流れ行く茶道の動向に対応することが出来ず伊賀焼の窯煙は一旦途絶えます。
その後、江戸中期に復興し、土鍋や土瓶等の日用雑器を焼く産地へと移り変わりました。
その後、明治から現代に至るまで、「伊賀陶土」の特性を生かした耐熱食器の産地として、その伝統は受け継がれ続いています。
整った形に手を加えた破調の美。
伊賀焼は、敏感に受け止めることが出来る「焼き物の美」を最も純粋に表しているのです。

 

 

伊賀焼の特徴:

 

伊賀周辺で採取される「伊賀陶土」を使用し、伝統技術・技法を活用して、伊賀市、名張市で生産される陶器を「伊賀焼」と呼びます。
「伊賀陶土」とは、約400万年前に堆積した古琵琶湖層に由来します。
蛙目(がいろめ)粘土は、粘土の他に炭化した植物と粗粒の珪石を多く含むみ、焼成すると多孔性な素地となり、耐火性・多孔質性・蓄熱保温性・遠赤外線効果・吸水性・に優れるという特徴を持っています。
また、木節粘土(きぶしねんど)と呼ばれるものは、粒子が細かい粘土と炭化した植物からできており、耐火度が高いという特徴を持っています。
伊賀焼は別名七度焼とも云われる様に焼いて焼いてそして焼いて黒く焦げた肌に紅葉した火色土肌に灰釉がかかり自然釉となりずっしりとした重みの中に一種の華やかさが加わります。
伊賀焼は、1400度の炎の中から生まれた美しい「泥の花」のようです。


 

History of Iga ware :

 

The history of Iga ware was old and the old kiln in the second half of the 16th century was checked from investigation etc.
Iga ware developed as a place of production of full-scale pottery from the Heian period last stage at the start time of the Kamakura period.
When it applied to Momoyama Era from the end of the Muromachi period and WABI-CHA (taste-for-the-simple-and-quiet tea) spread, individual Iga ware came to attract attention as tea ceremony pottery.
Since Sadaji Tsutsui and Takatora Todo who had governed Iga were CHA-JIN (master of the tea ceremony), Iga ware took in the sense and consideration of the tea ceremony skillfully.
"Mizusashi and a flower vase had nothing that surpasses Iga ware" was said, and Iga ware received high evaluations from masters of the tea ceremony.
However, the Iga ware cannot respond to the trend of the tea ceremony which flows and goes, but after entering an Edo term, the smoke of Iga ware kiln once stops.
Then, Iga ware revived in the middle of the Edo period, and changed to the place of production which makes offering dishes for daily use, such as a clay pot and an earthenware teapot.
Then, as a place of production of heat-resistant tableware in which Iga ware employed the characteristic of "IGA-TOUDO" (Iga clay) efficiently from Meiji to the present age, the tradition is inherited and continues.
Iga ware has "HACHO NO BI" (beauty of broken meter) which added the hand in the well-organized form.
Iga ware expresses most purely "the beauty of pottery" which can be caught sensitively.

 

 

The feature of Iga ware :

 

The "Iga clay" extracted around Iga is used, examples of traditional craftsmanship and technique are utilized, and the pottery produced in Iga and Nabari is called "Iga ware."
With "Iga clay"originates in the old Lake Biwa layer deposited about 4 million years ago.
GAIROME clay tries to contain many silicic anhydride of the plant carbonized besides clay, and a rough grain.

If GAIROME clay is calcinated, it will become porosity foundation, and it has the feature of excelling in refractoriness, porosity nature, thermal storage warmth retaining property, the ultra-red ray effect, and a water absorptivity.
Moreover, the clay called kibushi clay (KIBISHI-NENDO) is made of fine-grained clay and a carbonized plant, and has the feature that fire-resistant temperature is high.
Iga ware is also called alias NANADO-YAKI (pottery burned 7 times).
Works are burned many times, HI-IRO of autumn tints and ash glaze fall on on the pottery skin which burned black, and a kind of "brightness" is added to it into weightiness.
Iga ware seems to be beautiful "muddy flower" produced out of the flame of 1400 degrees.

                                                                                                                                        

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